In situ/operando (soft) X-ray spectroscopy study of beyond lithium-ion batteries

(a) A schematic of soft XAS/XES/RIXS. (b) Coverage of elements and corresponding excitations that are accessible by soft X-ray spectroscopy. (c) Atomic schematic of the core-electron excitation, photon-in-electron-out XAS and photon-in-photon-out XAS/XES/RIXS.

Scientific Achievement

The application of in situ/operando (soft) X-ray spectroscopy in beyond lithium-ion batteries is reviewed to demonstrate how such spectroscopic characterizations could facilitate the interpretation of interfacial phenomena under in-situ/operando conditions and subsequent development of the beyond lithium-ion batteries.

Significance and Impact

This mini-review elaborates the in-situ/operando (soft) X-ray spectroscopy in the electronic structure study of beyond lithium-ion batteries, including Mg-, Zn-. Ca-, Na-, and K-ion battery anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials reported recently. Highlighting the significance of in-situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopy approach to attain a unified understanding of the ion solvation and its variation at the atomic level.

Detailed sections

  • A summary was made as a table regarding the cathode, anode, electrolyte and performance of several different beyond lithium-ion batteries.
  • An in-situ/operand setup was introduced for XAS studies on these beyond lithium-ion batteries.
  • The higher sensitivity of mRIXS in the detection of the oxidized oxygen features compared to that of XAS was introduced.

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DOI: 10.1002/eem2.12172

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