The application of in situ/operando (soft) X-ray spectroscopy in beyond lithium-ion batteries is reviewed to demonstrate how such spectroscopic characterizations could facilitate the interpretation of interfacial phenomena under in-situ/operando conditions and subsequent development of the beyond lithium-ion batteries.
Significance and Impact
This mini-review elaborates the in-situ/operando (soft) X-ray spectroscopy in the electronic structure study of beyond lithium-ion batteries, including Mg-, Zn-. Ca-, Na-, and K-ion battery anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials reported recently. Highlighting the significance of in-situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopy approach to attain a unified understanding of the ion solvation and its variation at the atomic level.
- A summary was made as a table regarding the cathode, anode, electrolyte and performance of several different beyond lithium-ion batteries.
- An in-situ/operand setup was introduced for XAS studies on these beyond lithium-ion batteries.
- The higher sensitivity of mRIXS in the detection of the oxidized oxygen features compared to that of XAS was introduced.